Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) has most important to continuity and balance of Sumatra ecosystem forest. This case make sumatran tiger as one of key species for biodiversity conservation in Indonesia. Population of sumatran tiger show reduction trend cause of over hunting their prey species, natural disaster, habitat fragmentation, illegal logging, land conversion, poaching pressure, age and reproduction ability. Because of the reason this study aim to know the density, encounter rate and activity pattern of sumatran tiger.
The study was conducted in Ipuh-Seblat, SKW II Bengkulu Kerinci Seblat National Park during September 2006 until January 2007. The data were collected by camera trapping, capture-recapture and vegetation analysis. Total active time of camera is 1551,32 day. Effective sampling area obtained by using ½ Mean Maximum Distance Move (½ MMDV), which is 359,3 km2. Capture-recapture using the Mh model with closed population assumption, through CAPTURE and Adobe Photoshop CS8 application software. The vegetation analysis is using circular sampling technique while statistical analysis test is using SPPS software.
From CAPTURE result known that there are 6 tiger individual (Mt+1), with mean catch (P-hat) 0,2 then the tiger population density (N-hat) is 7±1,4 % (Standard Error) with 95 % confidence intervals from 7-13 individual or 2-4 (1,9-3,6) tigers/100 km². Result of camera trap shown that encounter rate (ER) for tiger (n=36) is 2,32 foto/100 day while for prey species (n=423) is 27,26 foto/100 day. Regression logistics test among encounter rate of tiger with encounter rate of prey species show unsignificant relationship with value P > 0,10. This mean the tiger existence is not defined by prey species attendance. Regression result logistics test for prey per species known that barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac) (P > 0,060) and tapir (Tapirus indicus) (P > 0,055) have positive relation to the tiger’s encounter rate. Prey’s food (herbivorous) have more quantities and variation in the hill forest such as kabau (Archidendron bubalinum, INP = 3,49%), durian hutan (Durio carinatus, INP = 4,94 %), and berangan (Castanopsis rhamnifolia, INP = 6,98 %). Prey’s food at lowland forest are mahang (Macaranga pruinosa, INP = 13,13 %) and gondang (Mangiletia giauca, INP = 6,46 %). While in sub mountain forest, prey’s food are kabau (Archidendron bubalinum, INP = 33,33 %) in less quantity. Tiger activity pattern (69 %) and their prey species (72 %) in Ipuh-Seblat having diurnal characteristic. The result of overlay activity pattern of tiger and their prey shows that activity pattern of barking deer and tiger were equality. This result indicate that tiger have activity pattern close or a similarly to main prey activity pattern which is barking deer.
Keyword : tiger, prey, population, camera trapping, encounter rate
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